最後更新: 2020-08-25


Pipes and FIFOs (also known as named pipes) provide a unidirectional interprocess communication channel.


  • Pipe output to two different commands
  • Process Substitution
  • pipe with zip
  • pipe with ssh
  • named pipe
  • mkfifo

Pipe output to two different commands



  • 方法1: process substitution ">(X)"
  • 方法2: named pipe

方法1: process substitution ">(X)"

tee >(command1) >(command2) | command3

">" 與 "(" 之間不可有空格



方法2: named pipe


mkfifo pipe

cat pipe | (command 1) &

echo 'test' | tee pipe | (command 2)

多 command 進階版

tmp_dir=$(mktemp -d)
mkfifo "$tmp_dir/f1" "$tmp_dir/f2"
command1 <"$tmp_dir/f1" & pid1=$!
command2 <"$tmp_dir/f2" & pid2=$!
tee "$tmp_dir/f1" "$tmp_dir/f2" | command3
rm -rf "$tmp_dir"
wait $pid1 $pid2

應用例子: nc & md5

# Sender

time pv vda.qcow2 | tee >(md5sum > md5.txt) |  nc -w 2 6666

# Receiver

nc -v -l 6666 | tee >(md5sum > md5.txt) | pv > vda.qcow2


Process Substitution



  • <(command)       # run command and make its output appear as a file (stdout -> file)
  • >(command)      # feeds the output of a process into the stdin of another process (file -> stdin)

 * "<", ">" 與 ")", "(" 之間不可有空格

">(X)" 的原理

The shell creates the pipe and passes a file name like "/dev/fd/3" to the command.

The number(3) is the file descriptor that the pipe is connected to.


echo >(true) <(true)

/dev/fd/63 /dev/fd/62


pipe with zip


echo testtesttest > a.txt

dd if=a.txt | gzip -c | gzip -d | dd of=b.txt

pipe with ssh



dd bs=1M if=/dev/sda1 | lz4 | \
  ssh -o 'Compression no' -c arcfour REMOTE \
  'lz4 -d | dd bs=1M of=/dev/sda1'


  • dd with "bs"
  • lz4 compress
  • ssh no compress & low encrytion


named pipe


A named pipe (also known as a FIFO for its behavior) is an extension to the traditional pipe concept on Unix.

It is one of the methods of inter-process communication (IPC).

A traditional pipe is "unnamed" and lasts only as long as the process.

A named pipe, however, can last as long as the system is up, beyond the life of the process.




mkfifo - make FIFOs (named pipes)


-m nnn     # 設定 permission. Default: prw-r--r-- ; i.e. -m 600 )


mkfifo MyPipe

Example 1: Create temporary pipeline

# -u, --dry-run              do not create anything; merely print a name (unsafe)

tmppipe=$(mktemp -u)

mkfifo -m 600 "$tmppipe"

Example 2: gzip by pipe

A: 是有次數的, A 後才可以 B

mkfifo MyPipe

gzip -9 -c < MyPipe > out.gz &


# 只可以行一次

cat file > MyPipe

Example 3

mkfifo MyPipe

# A read call to a FIFO is blocked until a data is available in the pipe

cat MyPipe> test.bin

dd if=/dev/zero of=MyPipe bs=1k count=1

# A write call is blocked until the data is read from another process.

dd if=/dev/zero of=MyPipe bs=1k count=1

cat MyPipe > test.bin

# The pipe has a 64k buffer (on linux) and, will block the writer when full

dd if=/dev/zero bs=1 | sleep 999

3, 4 秒後按 "Ctrl + C"

^C65537+0 records in
65536+0 records out
65536 bytes (66 kB, 64 KiB) copied, 2.47784 s, 26.4 kB/s


# sending 1k chunks to blocked pipe until buffer full
while true; do
    dd if=/dev/zero bs=1k count=1 2>/dev/null;
    echo -en "\r$M KB" 1>&2;
done | sleep 999