Coin Type

最後更新: 2018-03-01




  • Bitcoin(BTC)
  • Litecoin
  • Ethereum
  • ETC
  • Zcash
  • Dash
  • Bitcoin Cash(BCH)
  • Siacoin
  • XMR

主流幣: 基本上在各平台(交易所)都可以使用USD兌換的, 如 BTC, ETH, LTC

熱門小幣: 支持BTC, ETH兌換的小幣, 如:ELA, TRX

死幣: 交易量幾乎沒有的幣(傳說中的空氣幣)









ether generates

Mining of ether generates new coins at a usually consistent rate, occasionally(偶爾) changing during hard forks


Ethereum's blockchain uses Merkle trees


20 bytes of the Keccak-256 hash (40 hexadecimal digits)

ethereum block explorer

Ethereum ETH Mining Pools Monitoring


Virtual Machine

EVM is the runtime environment for smart contracts in Ethereum.

Every Ethereum node in the network runs an EVM implementation and executes the same instructions.

transfer ethereum from one wallet to another

The average block time is around 16 seconds of so,

so it depends on if your transaction is included in the following block.

This is affected by how much gas you're willing to pay for your transaction.

The block time is determined by the block difficulty.

Block time will increase with the ice age (blocks become more difficult (slower) to incentivize the transition to PoS).

Higher gas price means you're offering more to the miners to confirm your transaction, so it'll be quicker.

Gas is the internal pricing for running a transaction or contract in Ethereum.

GasLimit  你願意最多給多少Gas去完成這一個交易

GasPrice  你願意支付多少Ether給Ethereum區塊鏈Miner礦工幫你執行這一筆交易

Transaction Fees = Gas Limit * Gas Price



Ethereum uses an account system where values in Wei are debited from accounts and credited to another

Smart Contract (scripting)





The Litecoin Network aims to process a block every 2.5 minutes, rather than Bitcoin's 10 minutes.
The developers claim that this allows Litecoin to have faster transaction confirmation.

Litecoin uses scrypt in its proof-of-work algorithm,
a sequential memory-hard function requiring asymptotically more memory than an algorithm which is not memory-hard.

Due to Litecoin's use of the scrypt algorithm, FPGA and ASIC devices made for mining Litecoin are more complicated to create and
more expensive to produce than they are for Bitcoin, which uses SHA-256.




Proof-of-Work algorithm: Equihash

Equihash has very efficient verification.

Equihash is a memory-oriented Proof-of-Work,
(which means how much mining you can do is mostly determined by how much RAM you have.)

based on: Generalized Birthday Problem


Monero (XMR)


created in April 2014
Hash function: CryptoNote
focuses on privacy and decentralization
designed to be resistant to ASIC(application-specific integrated circuit) mining
Block time: 2 minutes






An uncle is a referred to as a network block which would normally be considered an orphan.

blocks are orphaned because they were mined just after someone found the correct block header

In Ethereum network

“orphaned” blocks to still yield a reward for miners

It is also an incentive to join smaller mining pools, as uncles will still yield some form of reward.

commonly associated with the Ethereum blockchain


blockchain bloat

it takes much longer to initially synchronize a desktop wallet client with said network

An alternative solution is to take part of the transaction information off the main blockchain and use sidechain solutions.

In the case of Segregated Witness, transaction hashes will be removed from the main blockchain, to reduce the amount of bloat generated by the process.

decentralized storage solutions for blockchains,

such as the technology provided by Storj.


Orphan blocks

Orphan blocks occur when two miners produce a block at similar times.

This causes a temporary split in the network as the nodes attempt to decide which block to continue building on.

The block with the greater proof-of-work will be the one that the blockchain is continued to be built on-top of.

orphaned blocks are initially accepted by the majority of the network, but are later rejected when proof of a longer blockchain is received that doesn't include that particular block.


Stale blocks

At any second, a block may be "solved." This means that everyone else in the world working on that block must stop,

and restart their work. Continuing to work after that point is known as working on a "stale block" because it is old data, and old transactions.


Genesis block

first block of a blockchain




Merkle trees


Merkle trees are used in distributed systems for efficient data verification.

They are efficient because they use hashes instead of full files.

input of data broken up into blocks labeled L1 though L4.

Each of these blocks are hashed using some hash function.

Then each pair of nodes are recursively hashed until we reach the root node,
which is a hash of all nodes below it.


Hardware Key


The device itself holds the keys and signs transactions for you.


 * backup and recovery with a micro SD card

 * password + two-factor authentication

 * A secondary password can open a hidden wallet

 * After 15 unsuccessful attempts to guess the password, the Digital Bitbox will erase all secrets and reset

 * IC: ATAES132A


  • 32Kb Standard Serial EEPROM User Memory (16 User Zones of 2Kb)
  • AES Algorithm with 128-bit Keys
  • Secure Storage for 16 and 128 bit Keys
  • Encrypted User Memory Read and Write
  • FIPS Random Number Generator (RNG)


Ledger Wallet




記錄 Private Key 工具



Users are able to store up to 96 characters





principal book or computer file for recording and totaling economic transactions measured in terms of a monetary unit of account by account type,

with debits and credits in separate columns and a beginning monetary balance and ending monetary balance for each account.


aimed at minimizing the database